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Ecosystem PDF Free To Download: Ecosystem subsists of the biological association that arise in some locale, and the physical and synthetic aspect that make up its non-living or a biotic environment.

Also See: Environment Pollution PDF

Ecosystem PDF Free To Download

Components of an Ecosystem


  • Sunlight
  • Temperature
  • Precipitation
  • Water or moisture
  • Soil or water chemistry (e.g., P, NH4+) etc.


  • Primary producers
  • Herbivores
  • Carnivores
  • Omnivores
  • Detritivores etc.


  1. Element ratios: In biological systems, we indicate to important elements as “conservative”. These fundamentals are often nutrients.
  2. Mass Balance: Another significant tool that biogeochemists use is a plain mass balance equation to describe the state of a system.
  3. Element Cycling: Element bicycle represents where and how fast fundamentals move in a system.

This is the table of content, we are going to discuss in this PDF file of Ecosystem.

  • Introduction
  • What is an Ecosystem?
  • Components of Ecosystems
  • Processes of Ecosystems
  • The Transformation of Energy
  • Biogeochemistry
  • Controls on Ecosystem Function
  • The Geography of Ecosystems
  • Conclusion
  • Reference

Download: Ecosystem PDF

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